تبیین نظری ساختار شهر فشردۀ چندهسته‌ای به‌منظور ایجاد فرم شهری پایدار

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکده جغرافیا دانشگاه تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

10.22111/gaij.2021.6660

چکیده

ساختار فضایی شهرها پس از تغییرات تکنولوژیک و افزایش رشد جمعیت، تغییرات زیادی کرده و از ساختار تک‌هسته‌ای فشرده به ساختار گسترده و پراکنده تبدیل شده که چالش‌های زیادی را ایجاد کرده و زندگی و رفاه انسان را با مشکل مواجه کرده‌ است. تلاش برای دستیابی به ساختار و فرم شهری پایدار بعد از نیمۀ دوم قرن بیستم شدت بیشتری گرفت و راهکارهایی مانند رشد هوشمند، نوشهرگرایی، توسعۀ میان‌افزا و شهر فشرده ارائه شده است. در ادامۀ روند تغییر ساختار شهرها، ساختار شهر چندهسته‌ای در شهرهای بزرگ نمود پیدا کرده است. شکل‌گیری ساختار چندهسته‌ای در شهرهای بزرگ اجتناب‌ناپذیر است؛ بنابراین برای افزایش پایداری در فرم شهری و تحقق توسعۀ پایدار شهری، لازم است تا ساختار چندهسته‌ای با رویکردهای پیشین، مانند شهر فشرده ترکیب شود. هدف اصلی پژوهش، تبیین نظریِ رویکرد ساختار فشردۀ چندهسته‌ای در چارچوب نظریه‌های برنامه‌ریزی شهری است. در این پژوهش با استفاده از روش مرور مطالعات مرتبط با پراکنده‌رویی، شهر فشرده و ساختار چندهسته‌ای، چارچوب نظری برای ترکیب ساختارهای شهر فشرده و چندهسته‌ای ارائه شد. دستاورد پژوهش این است که شهر فشرده چندهسته‌ای با شاخص‌هایی مانند افزایش تراکم، تقویت حمل‌ونقل عمومی، افزایش کاربری ترکیبی، تسهیل خدمات‌رسانی، کاهش فاصله بین محل سکونت و محل کار، تشدیدسازی و میان افزایی به‌عنوان آخرین ساختار برای تحقق توسعۀ پایدار شهری پیشنهاد می‌شود. رویکرد شهر فشرده چندهسته‌ای از سه ساختار پراکنده‌‌رویی، شهر فشرده و ساختار چندهسته‌ای برای دستیابی به فرم شهر پایدار بهره می‌گیرد. شهرهایی که با پدیدۀ پراکنده‌رویی مواجه می‌شوند، می‌توانند با ایجاد و تقویت هسته‌ها فشردگی را افزایش دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Theoretical Explanation of Polycentric Compact City Structure to Create a Sustainable Urban form

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmood Arvin 1
  • Ahmad Poor Ahmad 2
چکیده [English]

The spatial structure of cities has changed a lot after technological changes and population growth and they have shifted from a monocentric compact city structure to an extended and scattered structure that poses many challenges and they have made human life and well-being difficult. Efforts to achieve a sustainable urban structure and form intensified after the second half of the twentieth century and solutions such as smart growth, urbanism, infill development, and a compact city are offered. Following the process of changing the structure of cities, the structure of polycentric city has become apparent in large cities. The formation of a polycentric structure in large cities is inevitable. Therefore, in order to increase sustainability in the urban form and achieve sustainable urban development, it is necessary to combine the polycentric city structure with previous approaches such as the compact city. The main purpose of the research is to explain theoretically the approach of polycentric compact city structure within the framework of urban planning theories. In this study, using the review method of studies related to urban sprawl, compact city and polycentric structure, the theoretical framework of combining compact and polycentric structures was explained. The research results suggest that a compact city with several indicators such as increasing density, strengthening public transport, increasing mixed land use, facilitating service delivery, reducing the distance between home and work, intensification and infill are proposed as the last structure to achieve sustainable urban development. Polycentric compact city approach takes advantage from the three structures of sprawl, compact city and polycentric city to achieve a sustainable city form.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Structure
  • urban sustainable development
  • sprawl
  • Compact City
  • Of Polycentric Structure
توحیدی، مهدی. (1394). ارائۀ الگوی بهینۀ توسعۀ فیزیکی شهر بانه با تأکید بر شاخص‌های توسعۀ میان‌افزا، پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه مراغه.https://ganj.irandoc.ac.ir/#/articles/cd36e59a3a8a31e7606023dc30d91456
راجرز، لرد. (1393). به‌سوی یک رنسانس شهری، مترجم محمد سعید ایزدی، چاپ اول، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
سفلابی، فرزانه؛ منطقی، گلنوش. (1389). شهر فشرده، شکل شهری پایدار، ماهنامۀ شمس، شمارۀ 65-66، صص 22-15.
رازقی، حبیب‌الله؛ زیاری، کرامت الله و سعیدی رضوانی، نوید (1390)، «مدل چندهسته‌ای و چندمرکزی شهر و کلان‌شهری، از نظریه تا عمل؛ مطالعه موردی: شهر کرج»، فصلنامه تحقیقات جغرافیایی،دانشگاه خوارزمی، سال 26، شماره سوم، شماره پیاپی 102.ensani.ir/fa/article/313914/%D9%85%D8%AF%D9%84-%DA%86%D9%86%D8%AF%D9%87%D8%B3%D8%AA%D9%87-%D8%A7%DB%8C-%D9%http://
لطفی، صدیقه؛ شهابی شهمیری، مجتبی. (1395). تغییر الگوی شهرنشینی از ساختار شهری تک‌مرکزی- سلسه‌مراتبی به ساختارهای منطقه‌ای شبکه‌ای-چندمرکزی، برنامه‌ریزی و آمایش فضا، دانشگاه گلستان، دورۀ بیستم، شمارۀ 1، صص 267-241.https://hsmsp.modares.ac.ir/article-21-3542-fa.html
مشکینی، ابوالفضل؛ زنگانه، احمد؛ مهدنژاد، احمد. (1392). درآمدی بر پراکنده‌رویی (خزش) شهری، چاپ تربیت معلم، تهران، چاپ اول.
Abdullahi, S, & Pradhan, B. (2017). Compact City Modeling (Case Study of Kajang City, Malaysia). In Spatial Modeling and Assessment of Urban Form (pp. 225-265). Springer, Cham.https://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/handle/10453/126471
Alford, G, & Whiteman, J. (2009). Macro-urban form and transport energy outcomes: Investigations for Melbourne. Road & Transport Research: A Journal of Australian and New Zealand Research and Practice, 18(1), 53.https://www.australasiantransportresearchforum.org.au/sites/default/files/2008_Alford_Whiteman.pdf
Alonso, W. (1964). Location and land use. Toward a general theory of land rent. Location and land use. Toward a general theory of land rent.https://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674730854
Alqhatani, M. (2014). Sustainable transport and urban form: modelling the shift from a monocentric private transport-oriented city to a polycentric public transport-oriented city.https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Sustainable-transport-and-urban-form%3A-modelling-the-Alqhatani/341e1aa7ecabb0b4bd817efc70f1bbc767c14e23
Anas, A., Arnott, R., & Small, K. A. (1998). Urban spatial structure. Journal of economic literature, 36(3), 1426-1464.https://www.jstor.org/stable/2564805?casa_token=L4A1ZvGOUp8AAAAA%3A4Z6uY4RyiLL_3NQkd_svZitvL9k52ko_eYgJNthgHBjjkfZmgmgsu_0G0YbeLioijFeeaAW3KElU6TGHwF2jrECAibo7brHqFeHNzZmIo_9cIw8yq6eK&seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents
Angel, S., & Blei, A. M. (2016). The spatial structure of American cities: The great majority of workplaces are no longer in CBDs, employment sub-centers, or live-work communities. Cities, 51, 21-35.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264275115300238
Arribas-Bel, D., Nijkamp, P., & Scholten, H. (2011). Multidimensional urban sprawl in Europe: A self-organizing map approach. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 35(4), 263-275.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0198971510000992?casa_token=Yj9LLNUv0KYAAAAA:YVTUlESBhcYhBNvXBW9Mes52L29mOHmX9gh6U_1bn4eiy97Wmq4lLBh2sK2aCef5X0k9aTmcoeA
Artmann, M., Kohler, M., Meinel, G., Gan, J., & Ioja, I. C. (2017). How smart growth and green infrastructure can mutually support each other—A conceptual framework for compact and green cities. Ecological Indicators.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1470160X17304144
Bagheri, B., & Tousi, S. N. (2018). An explanation of urban sprawl phenomenon in Shiraz Metropolitan Area (SMA). Cities, 73, 71-90.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0264275117305929
Banai, R., & DePriest, T. (2010). Urban Sprawl: Definitions, data, methods of measurement, and environmental consequences. Education, 2010.http://www.jsedimensions.org/wordpress/content/urban-sprawl-definitions-data-methods-of-measurement-and-environmental-consequences_2014_12/
Bardhan, R., Kurisu, K., & Hanaki, K. (2015). Does compact urban forms relate to good quality of life in high density cities of India? Case of Kolkata. Cities, 48, 55-65.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S026427511500089X
Bhatta, B. (2012). Urban growth analysis and remote sensing: a case study of Kolkata, India 1980–2010. Springer Science & Business Media.https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=OOQ-E7JfzGQC&oi=fnd&pg=PP3&dq=19.%09Bhatta,+B.+(2012).+Urban+growth+analysis+and+remote+sensing:+a+case+study+of+Kolkata,+India+1980%E2%80%932010.+Springer+Science+%26+Business+Media.&ots=fO67L8S8SW&sig=xFnJ1ux66H5qt
Burton, E. (2002). Measuring urban compactness in UK towns and cities. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 29(2), 219-250.https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1068/b2713
Cai, J., Huang, B., & Song, Y. (2017). Using multi-source geospatial big data to identify the structure of polycentric cities. Remote Sensing of Environment, 202, 210-221.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425717302985?casa_token=3f6SFxd9JLcAAAAA:ZlmcroKv-EFcb6xwsOUXuywIK0uuaHNwHisU3ugvdcaBpu0-HUG65Oxjce1O5BueZVTCxWNjCbs
Dantzig, G. B., & Saaty, T. L. (1973). Compact city: a plan for a liveable urban environment. WH Freeman.https://www.amazon.com/Compact-City-Liveable-Urban-Environment/dp/0716707942
Dieleman, F. M., Dijst, M. J., & Spit, T. (1999). Planning the compact city: the Randstad Holland experience. European Planning Studies, 7(5), 605-621.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09654319908720541
Farid, K. (2011). Urban sprawl Vs urban renewal: What role for Town and Country planning instruments in ensuring sustainable cities? Case of Algeria. Procedia Engineering, 21, 760-766.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705811049095
Frenkel, A., & Ashkenazi, M. (2008). Measuring urban sprawl: how can we deal with it? Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 35(1), 56-79.https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1068/b32155
Fujita, M., Krugman, P. R., & Venables, A. (1999). The spatial economy: Cities, regions, and international trade. MIT press.https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=07Mzawou-8EC&oi=fnd&pg=PR11&dq=26.%09Fujita,+M.,+Krugman,+P.+R.,+%26+Venables,+A.+(1999).+The+spatial+economy:+Cities,+regions,+and+international+trade.+MIT+press.&ots=LK3Zcn1K6K&sig=_4sQvnqPoMtwsZUe0dzOErbkmCI#v=onepage&q=26.%09Fujita%2C%20M.%2C%20Krugman%2C%20P.%20R.%2C%20%26%20Venables%2C%20A.%20(1999).%20The%20spatial%20economy%3A%20Cities%2C%20regions%2C%20and%20international%20trade.%20MIT%20press.&f=false
Griffin, B. A. Eibner, C. Bird, C. E. Jewell, A. Margolis, K. Shih, R. & Escarce, J. J. (2013). The relationship between urban sprawl and coronary heart disease in women. Health & place, 20, 51-61.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1353829212001943
Habitat, U. N. (2014). Urban patterns for a green economy leveraging density. Nairobi: UNON Publishing Services.https://unhabitat.org/leveraging-density-urban-patterns-for-a-green-economy
Jun, M. J. (2020). The effects of polycentric evolution on commute times in a polycentric compact city: A case of the Seoul Metropolitan Area. Cities, 98, 102587.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0264275118317207
Lee, J. H., & Lim, S. (2018). The selection of compact city policy instruments and their effects on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector: The case of South Korea. Sustainable cities and society, 37, 116-124.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210670717302639?casa_token=gz7mAe_G0aIAAAAA:ofVDV6Mr-m96mWd6EiNkHxi2Xlq-AaGzSRj8Ja1TZg4to7nlBzGABGA-EO4dnw9FcmB5j7MUuks
Legras, S., & Cavailhès, J. (2012). Urban form and sustainable development. Urban form and sustainable development (2012).https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02803540
Li, Y., Xiong, W., & Wang, X. (2019). Does polycentric and compact development alleviate urban traffic congestion? A case study of 98 Chinese cities. Cities, 88, 100-111.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S026427511830619X
Lin, D., Allan, A., Cui, J., & Mclaughlin, R. (2012). The effects of polycentric development on commuting patterns in metropolitan areas. Regional Studies Association.https://www.regionalstudies.org/wpcontent/uploads/2018/07/Dong_Lins_Final_Paper_for_RSA_Beijing_Global_Conference_of.pdf
Liu, X., Derudder, B., & Wang, M. (2018). Polycentric urban development in China: A multi-scale analysis. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 45(5), 953-972.https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2399808317690155
Liu, Y., Fan, P., Yue, W., Huang, J., Li, D., & Tian, Z. (2019). Assessing polycentric urban development in mountainous cities: the case of Chongqing Metropolitan Area, China. Sustainability, 11(10), 2790.https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/10/2790
Liu, Z., & Liu, S. (2018). Polycentric development and the role of urban polycentric planning in China’s mega cities: An examination of Beijing’s metropolitan area. Sustainability, 10(5), 1588.https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/10/5/1588
Maier, G., Franz, G., & Schrock, P. (2006). Urban Sprawl. How Useful Is This Concept?https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/118229
Manole, S. D., Tache, A., & Popescu, O. (2018). Evaluating the Romanian polycentricity using the Functional Urban Areas determined on the basis of statistical indicators. Romanian Statistical Review Supplement, 66(2), 159-177.https://ideas.repec.org/a/rsr/supplm/v66y2018i2p159-177.html
Olsvold, H. (2018). Polycentric development in the Greater Oslo Region-An analysis of population development and commuting patterns between 2001 and 2015 (Master's thesis).https://www.duo.uio.no/handle/10852/66834?locale-attribute=en
Overman, H. G., Puga, D., & Turner, M. A. (2001). Describing Urban Sprawl: Evidence from remote-sensing imagery. Retrieved Sep, 27, 2011.https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.197.7933&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Pozoukidou, G., & Ntriankos, I. (2017). Measuring and assessing urban sprawl: A proposed indicator system for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, 8, 30-40.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2352938516301161
Roychansyah, M. S., Ishizaka, K., & Omi, T. (2005). Considerations of Regional Characteristics for Delivering City Compactness. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 4(2), 339-346.https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jaabe/4/2/4_2_339/_article/-char/ja/
Sat, A. N. (2018). Monocentric or polycentric?: Defining morphological structure of Nuts-2 regions of Turkey from 2000 to 2016. Geographica Pannonica, 22(1), 1-13.https://aseestant.ceon.rs/index.php/geopan/article/view/15726
Shirazi, M., & Falahat, S. (2012). Compact urban form, question or solution? Examining the compact city in the Middle Eastern context: Challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, 4(2), 246-259.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19463138.2012.694817
Sun, B., Han, S., & Li, W. (2020). Effects of the polycentric spatial structures of Chinese city regions on CO2 concentrations. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 82, 102333.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1361920919304122?casa_token=d15gzCGbrLUAAAAA:bG9-WcYjuRwheD-ufm1m22oeLjNInoZzUu2uOq_Y1a6Tp6vu4lWZ-qJaL97txs1AW2d_CA-lSDw
Sun, T., & Lv, Y. (2020). Employment centers and polycentric spatial development in Chinese cities: A multi-scale analysis. Cities, 99, 102617.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0264275119301763
Tao, J., Wang, Y., Wang, R., & Mi, C. (2019). Do Compactness and Poly-Centricity Mitigate PM10 Emissions? Evidence from Yangtze River Delta Area. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(21), 4204.https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/21/4204
Tappert, S., Klöti, T., & Drilling, M. (2018). Contested urban green spaces in the compact city: The (re-) negotiation of urban gardening in Swiss cities. Landscape and urban planning, 170, 69-78.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169204617302001
Veneri, P. (2010). Urban polycentricity and the costs of commuting: Evidence from Italian metropolitan areas. Growth and Change, 41(3), 403-429.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1468-2257.2010.00531.x?casa_token=e-ThuPeUAd4AAAAA%3A2NoUKwY3zKDhLW2eIWTHPnAMSS0mdg0RNtPTw-wvzW_U0Qs1C61SIJvxC2p4EmIYNhblsVm2Oo0-iR4-
Wang, T., Yue, W., Ye, X., Liu, Y., & Lu, D. (2020). Re-evaluating polycentric urban structure: A functional linkage perspective. Cities, 101, 102672.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0264275119318724
Weisbrod, G., Vary, D., & Treyz, G. (2003). Measuring economic costs of urban traffic congestion to business. Transportation research record, 1839(1), 98-106.https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3141/1839-10
Yang, W., & Cao, X. (2018). Examining the effects of the neighborhood built environment on CO2 emissions from different residential trip purposes: A case study in Guangzhou, China. Cities, 81, 24-34.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0264275117308612
Yue, W., Liu, Y., & Fan, P. (2010). Polycentric urban development: the case of Hangzhou. Environment and planning A, 42(3), 563-577.https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1068/a42116
Zhang, T. (2000). Land market forces and government's role in sprawl: The case of China. Cities, 17(2), 123-135.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S026427510000007X
Zhang, T., Sun, B., Li, W., Dan, B., & Wang, C. (2019). Polycentricity or dispersal? The spatial transformation of metropolitan Shanghai. Cities, 95, 102352.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0264275118316093
Oueslati, W., Alvanides, S., & Garrod, G. (2015). Determinants of urban sprawl in European cities. Urban Studies, 52(9), 1594-1614.https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0042098015577773
Jenks, M., Burton, E., & Williams, K. (1996). The Compact city. London: E & FN Spon.https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/mono/10.4324/9780203362372/compact-city-elizabeth-burton-mike-jenks-katie-williams
Lee, S., An, Y., & Kim, K. (2017). Relationship between transit modal split and intra-city trip ratio by car for compact city planning of municipalities in the Seoul Metropolitan Area. Cities, 70, 11-21.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S026427511630484X