عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Successful and innovator cities have been formed from three levels of creative individuals, national and international companies and organizations that connect these two levels with each other. The most important reason of lacking access to urban innovation has been absence or weakness of the middle level. The effects of creativity and innovation are established by proximity between two levels of innovative actors which are included in the cities (Underground) and also innovative firms (Upperground). In this environment another level should also be considered that acts as an intermediary between these two levels and called the connective level (Middleground). The fertility of middleground and its ability to facilitate the connection between the two mentioned levels of underground and upperground, finally leads to urban innovation. Cities in developing countries generally lack effectiveness in these layers especially in connective level. Accordingly, in order to investigate the present status of innovation in the intermediary organizations of Mashhad City and predict the side and direction of innovation in vision of 2025 (the perspective vision of preparing Khorasan Razavi province), 100 questionnaire with three key factors and 44 effective factors (effective factors are subset of key factors) have been filled in 4 organizations and Friedman test has been used for ranking the most desirable factors affecting the present status of innovation and effective factors with the high uncertainty and ambiguity in vision of 2025. Also interviews were carried out with 9 experts of urban organizations. This study is applied research and the nature and methods of research, cross - is composed. As well as to assess the current situation and uncertainty on the vision, the middle layer connecting the national innovation system as is used a combination of four mode. Results of this research showed that there are suitable supporting laws for improving innovation, but these laws are not sufficient and not supported by enforcement. Also there are not necessary supports for encouraging innovation in research centers. Also intellectual property rights are weak and venture capitalists are not active in the city. The general situation of innovation has been undesirable presently and the urban managers don’t so many tendencies to innovation in urban plans and projects. Even if the innovation in projects is considered in the first stages of research, faces with many problems in the implementation and practical stage and innovation is forgotten in them. Also, the lack of horizontal and vertical interaction in the organizations and the existence of cumbersome laws and many parallel activities have been caused to being accompanied the effective factors of urban innovation with the high uncertainty and reaching to the innovator city in vision of 2025 is almost unlikely. As a result of reaching to the innovator city, the fundamental changes are required in the key and effective factors that this affair demands a holistic effort by managers both in the local and national aspects and Finally suggestions are offered.